He Y, Li Y, Yang X, Hemler EC, Fang Y, Zhao L, et al. The dietary transition and its association with cardiometabolic mortality among Chinese adults, 1982–2012: a cross-sectional population-based study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019;7:540–8.
Zhou M, Wang H, Zeng X, Yin P, Zhu J, Chen W, et al. Mortality, morbidity, and risk factors in China and its provinces, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2019;394:1145–58.
Shen X, Fang A, He J, Liu Z, Guo M, Gao R, et al. Trends in dietary fat and fatty acid intakes and related food sources among Chinese adults: A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1997-2011). Public Health Nutr. 2017;20:2927–36.
Liu AD, Li JW, Liu ZP, Zhou PP, Mao WF, Li N, et al. Trans fatty acid levels in foods and intakes among population aged 3 years and above in Beijing and Guangzhou Cities, China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2015;28:477–85.
Hensrud DD, Heimburger DC, Chen J, Parpia B. Antioxidant status, erythrocyte fatty acids, and mortality from cardiovascular disease and Keshan disease in China. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48:455–64.
Hellerstein MK, Schwarz J-M, Neese RA. Regulation of Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Humans. Annu Rev Nutr. 1996;16:523–57.
Zong G, Zhu J, Sun L, Ye X, Lu L, Jin Q, et al. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway with risk of metabolic syndrome in a cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:319–26.
Kroger J, Zietemann V, Enzenbach C, Weikert C, Jansen EH, Doring F, et al. Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:127–42.
Erdman JW, MacDonald IA, Zeisel SH. Present knowledge in nutrition. Tenth Edition. Wiley-Blackwell: Iowa; 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119946045.
Xiang M, Rahman MA, Ai H, Li X, Harbige LS. Diet and gene expression: delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases in healthy Chinese and European subjects. Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50:492–8.
Slavin J. Dietary guidelines: are we on the right path? 2012. https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0b013e31826c50af.
Zhu Z, Wu C, Luo B, Zang J, Wang Z, Guo C, et al. The dietary intake and its features across four seasons in the metropolis of China. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2019;65:52–59.
Wang L, Xiang Z, Stevanovic S, Ristovski Z, Salimi F, Gao J, et al. Role of Chinese cooking emissions on ambient air quality and human health. Sci Total Environ. 2017;589:173–81.
Chang J, Wang Y. Report of Chinese residents of nutrition and health surveillance 2010-2013. Beijing: Peking University Medical Press; 2016.
Hu Y, Li H, Lu L, Manichaikul A, Zhu J, Chen IYDer, et al. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify novel loci associated with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in chinese and european-ancestry populations. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;25:1215–24.
Li H, Gan W, Lu L, Dong X, Han X, Hu C, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies GRK5 and RASGRP1 as type 2 diabetes loci in Chinese Hans. Diabetes. 2013;62:291–8.
Luo JQ, Ren H, Liu MZ, Fang PF, Xiang DX. European versus Asian differences for the associations between paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Cell Mol Med. 2018;22:1720–32.
Ruderman N, Chisholm D, Pi-Sunyer X, Schneider S. The metabolically obese, normal-weight individual revisited. Diabetes. 1998;47:699–713.
Li Y, Ding J, Wang Y, Tang C, Zhang P. Nutrition-related mobile apps in the China App Store: assessment of functionality and quality. JMIR mHealth uHealth. 2019;7:e13261.
Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester ADM, Katan MB. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1146–55.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N. Engl J Med. 1997;337:1491–9.
Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73:1019–26.
van Dam RM, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:417–24.
Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DRJ, Folsom AR. Dietary fat and incidence of type 2 diabetes in older Iowa women. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1528–35.
Forouhi NG, Koulman A, Sharp SJ, Imamura F, Kroger J, Schulze MB, et al. Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2:810–8.
Yamagishi K, Nettleton JA, Folsom AR. Plasma fatty acid composition and incident heart failure in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Am Heart J. 2008;156:965–74.
Ma W, Wu JHY, Wang Q, Lemaitre RN, Mukamal KJ, Djousse L, et al. Prospective association of fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway with risk of type 2 diabetes: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:153–63.
Khaw K-T, Friesen MD, Riboli E, Luben R, Wareham N. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-norfolk prospective study. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001255.
Hodge AM, English DR, O’Dea K, Sinclair AJ, Makrides M, Gibson RA, et al. Plasma phospholipid and dietary fatty acids as predictors of type 2 diabetes: interpreting the role of linoleic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:189–97.
de Oliveira Otto MC, Nettleton JA, Lemaitre RN, Steffen LM, Kromhout D, Rich SS, et al. Biomarkers of dairy fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000092.
Yakoob MY, Shi P, Willett WC, Rexrode KM, Campos H, Orav EJ, et al. Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and risk of incident diabetes mellitus among men and women in the United States in two large prospective cohorts. Circulation. 2016;133:1645–54.
Malik VS, Chiuve SE, Campos H, Rimm EB, Mozaffarian D, Hu FB, et al. Circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and incident coronary heart disease in US men and women. Circulation. 2015;132:260–8.
Lemaitre RN, McKnight B, Sotoodehnia N, Fretts AM, Qureshi WT, Song X, et al. Circulating very long-chain saturated fatty acids and heart failure: the cardiovascular health study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7:e010019.
Zhuang P, Cheng L, Wang J, Zhang Y, Jiao J. Saturated fatty acid intake is associated with total mortality in a nationwide cohort study. J Nutr. 2019;149:68–77.
Yang B, Ding F, Yan J, Ye XW, Xu XL, Wang FL, et al. Exploratory serum fatty acid patterns associated with blood pressure in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:58.
Yang B, Ding F, Wang FL, Yan J, Ye XW, Yu W, et al. Association of serum fatty acid and estimated desaturase activity with hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Sci Rep. 2016;6:23446.
Chien KL, Chao CL, Kuo CH, Lin HJ, Liu PH, Chen PR, et al. Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:33.
Lin JS, Dong HL, Chen GD, Chen ZY, Dong XW, Zheng JS, et al. Erythrocyte saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes in chinese men and women: a prospective cohort study. Nutrients. 2018;10. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101393.
Sun Y, Koh HWL, Choi H, Koh WP, Yuan JM, Newman JW, et al. Plasma fatty acids, oxylipins, and risk of myocardial infarction: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:1300–7.
Zong G, Li Y, Sampson L, Dougherty LW, Willett WC, Wanders AJ, et al. Monounsaturated fats from plant and animal sources in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;107:445–53.
Mao L, Zhang Y, Wang W, Zhuang P, Wu F, Jiao J. Plant-sourced and animal-sourced monounsaturated fatty acid intakes in relation to mortality: a prospective nationwide cohort study. Eur J Nutr. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02048-8.
Guasch-Ferré M, Zong G, Willett WC, Zock PL, Wanders AJ, Hu FB, et al. Associations of monounsaturated fatty acids from plant and animal sources with total and cause-specific mortality in two US prospective cohort studies. Circ Res. 2019;124:1266–75.
Due A, Larsen TM, Hermansen K, Stender S, Holst JJ, Toubro S, et al. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:855–62.
Yamagishi K, Folsom AR, Steffen LM. Plasma fatty acid composition and incident ischemic stroke in middle-aged adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;36:38–46.
Djoussé L, Matthan NR, Lichtenstein AH, Gaziano JM. Red blood cell membrane concentration of cis-palmitoleic and cis-vaccenic acids and risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2012;110:539–44.
Steffen BT, Duprez D, Szklo M, Guan W, Tsai MY. Circulating oleic acid levels are related to greater risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: the Multi-Ethnic Study of atherosclerosis. J Clin Lipido. 2018;12:1404–12.
Delgado GE, Kramer BK, Lorkowski S, Marz W, von Schacky C, Kleber ME. Individual omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids and mortality-the ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study. J Clin Lipido. 2017;11:126–135.e5.
Zong G, Ye X, Sun L, Li H, Yu Z, Hu FB, et al. Associations of erythrocyte palmitoleic acid with adipokines, inflammatory markers, and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:970–6.
Zeng Ffang, Chen Zyong, Zheng JS, Lin Jsheng, Li Yhong, Qiu R, et al. Association between erythrocyte fatty acids in de novo lipogenesis pathway and DXA-derived body fat and trunk fat distribution in Chinese adults: a prospective study. Eur J Nutr. 2019;58:3229–39.
Sacks FM, Lichtenstein AH, Wu JHY, Appel LJ, Creager MA, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;136:e1–e23.
Siscovick DS, Barringer TA, Fretts AM, Wu JHY, Lichtenstein AH, Costello RB, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (Fish Oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135:e867–e884.
Kaushik M, Mozaffarian D, Spiegelman D, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:613–20.
Djousse L, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Lee I-M. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:143–50.
Wu JHY, Micha R, Imamura F, Pan A, Biggs ML, Ajaz O, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:S214–27.
Wilk JB, Tsai MY, Hanson NQ, Gaziano JM, Djousse L. Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:882–8.
Forouhi NG, Imamura F, Sharp SJ, Koulman A, Schulze MB, Zheng J, et al. Association of plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids with type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-interact case-cohort study. PLoS Med. 2016;13:1–17.
Djoussé L, Biggs ML, Lemaitre RN, King IB, Song X, Ix JH, et al. Plasma omega-3 fatty acids and incident diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:527–33.
Sun Q, Ma J, Campos H, Rexrode KM, Albert CM, Mozaffarian D, et al. Blood concentrations of individual long-chain n-3 fatty acids and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:216–23.
Mozaffarian D, Lemaitre RN, King IB, Song X, Huang H, Sacks FM, et al. Plasma phospholipid long-chain ω-3 fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults, a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:515–25.
de Oliveira Otto MC, Wu JHY, Baylin A, Vaidya D, Rich SS, Tsai MY, et al. Circulating and dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence of CVD in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000506.
Saber H, Yakoob MY, Shi P, Longstreth WT, Lemaitre RN, Siscovick D, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and incident ischemic stroke and its atherothrombotic and cardioembolic subtypes in 3 US cohorts. Stroke. 2017;48:2678–85.
Block RC, Liu L, Herrington DM, Huang S, Tsai MY, O’Connell TD, et al. Predicting Risk for Incident Heart Failure With Omega-3 Fatty Acids: From MESA. JACC Hear Fail. 2019;7:651–61.
Harris WS, Tintle NL, Ramachandran VS. Erythrocyte n-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality in the framingham heart study. Nutrients. 2018;10. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10122012.
Matsumoto C, Matthan NR, Wilk JB, Lichtenstein AH, Michael Gaziano J, Djoussé L. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:2044–9.
Virtanen JK, Mursu J, Voutilainen S, Uusitupa M, Tuomainen TP. Serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in men: The kuopio ischemic heart disease risk factor study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:189–96.
Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Rimm E, Kris-Etherton P, Rudel LL, Appel LJ, et al. Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: A science advisory from the American Heart Association nutrition subcommittee of the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism; council on cardiovascular nursing; and council on epidem. Circulation. 2009;119:902–7.
Wu JHY, Lemaitre RN, King IB, Song X, Psaty BM, Siscovick DS, et al. Circulating omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality: the cardiovascular health study. Circulation. 2014;130:1245–53.
Patel PS, Sharp SJ, Jansen E, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, et al. Fatty acids measured in plasma and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipids and derived by food-frequency questionnaire and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: a pilot study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk c. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1214–22.
Marklund M, Wu JHY, Imamura F, Del Gobbo LC, Fretts A, De Goede J, et al. Biomarkers of dietary omega-6 fatty acids and incident cardiovascular disease and mortality: an individual-level pooled analysis of 30 cohort studies. Circulation. 2019;139:2422–36.
Wang L, Folsom AR, Zheng Z-J, Pankow JS, Eckfeldt JH. Plasma fatty acid composition and incidence of diabetes in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:91–98.
Jackson KH, Harris WS. Blood fatty acid profiles: new biomarkers for cardiometabolic disease risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2018;20:22.
Gibson RA. Musings about the role dietary fats after 40 years of fatty acid research. Prostaglandins Leukot Ess Fat Acids. 2018;131:1–5.
Takata Y, Zhang X, Li H, Gao YT, Yang G, Gao J, et al. Fish intake and risks of total and cause-specific mortality in 2 population-based cohort studies of 134,296 men and women. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178:46–57.
Koh AS, Pan A, Wang R, Odegaard AO, Pereira MA, Yuan JM, et al. The association between dietary omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular death: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015;22:364–72.
Zhuang P, Wang W, Wang J, Zhang Y, Jiao J. Polyunsaturated fatty acids intake, omega-6/omega-3 ratio and mortality: findings from two independent nationwide cohorts. Clin Nutr. 2019;38:848–55.
Zhang Y, Zhuang P, Mao L, Chen X, Wang J, Cheng L, et al. Current level of fish and omega-3 fatty acid intakes and risk of Type 2 diabetes in China. J Nutr Biochem. 2019;74:108249.
Villegas R, Xiang Y-B, Elasy T, Li H-L, Yang G, Cai H, et al. Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Chinese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:543–51.
Brostow DP, Odegaard AO, Koh WP, Duval S, Gross MD, Yuan JM, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:520–6.
Huang T, Sun J, Chen Y, Xie H, Xu D, Huang J, et al. Genetic variants in desaturase gene, erythrocyte fatty acids, and risk for type 2 diabetes in Chinese Hans. Nutrition. 2014;30:897–902.
Han LDA, Xia JF, Liang QL, Wang Y, Wang YM, Hu P, et al. Plasma esterified and non-esterified fatty acids metabolic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its application in the study of diabetic mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;689:85–91.
Huang T, Bhulaidok S, Cai Z, Xu T, Xu F, Wahlqvist ML, et al. Plasma phospholipids n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is associated with metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:1628–35.
Yu Y, Cai Z, Zheng J, Chen J, Zhang X, Huang XF, et al. Serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids are low in Chinese men with metabolic syndrome, whereas serum levels of saturated fatty acids, zinc, and magnesium are high. Nutr Res. 2012;32:71–77.
Dai Xwei, Chen Yming, Zeng Ffang, Sun Lli, Chen Cgang, Su Yxiang. Association between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes and metabolic syndrome in Chinese men and women. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55:981–9.
Huang T, Wahlqvist ML, Xu T, Xu A, Zhang A, Li D. Increased plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes in China. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:S112–9.
Huang T, Asimi S, Lou D, Li D. Plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and homocysteine in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2012;21:394–9.
Dai Xwei, Zhang B, Wang P, Chen Cgang, Chen Yming, Su Yxiang. Erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acid levels and carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese men and women. Atherosclerosis. 2014;232:79–85.
Zeng F, Sun L, Liu Y, Xu Y, Guan K, Ling W, et al. Higher erythrocyte n–3 PUFas are associated with decreased blood pressure in middle-aged and elderly chinese adults. J Nutr. 2014;144:1240–6.
Liu W, Xie X, Liu M, Zhang J, Liang W, Chen X. Serum ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and potential influence factors in elderly patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1102.
Zheng JS, Lin Jsheng, Dong Hli, Zeng Ffang, Li D, Song Y, et al. Association of erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Clin Nutr. 2019;38:2195–201.
Sun Y, Koh W-P, Yuan J-M, Choi H, Su J, Ong CN, et al. Plasma α-linolenic and long-chain ω-3 fatty acids are associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction in singapore chinese adults. J Nutr. 2016;146:275–82.
Zhang G, Sun Q, Hu FB, Ye X, Yu Z, Zong G, et al. Erythrocyte n-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E973–7.
Ma Y, Sun L, Li J, Hu Y, Gan Z, Zong G, et al. Erythrocyte PUFAs, circulating acylcarnitines, and metabolic syndrome risk: a prospective study in Chinese. J Lipid Res. 2019;60:421–9.
Yang B, Shi MQ, Li ZH, Shi L, Wang AM, Guo XJ, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements on cardiometabolic profiles in hypertensive patients with abdominal obesity in Inner Mongolia: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2019;10:1661–70.
Yang B, Shi L, Wang AM, Shi MQ, Li ZH, Zhao F, et al. Lowering effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements on blood pressure by reducing plasma angiotensin II in inner mongolia hypertensive patients: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Agric Food Chem. 2019;67:184–92.
Su TC, Hwang JJ, Huang KC, Chiang FT, Chien KL, Wang KY, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of ethyl-ester omega-3 fatty acid in Taiwanese hypertriglyceridemic patients. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017;24:275–89.
Zheng JS, Lin M, Fang L, Yu Y, Yuan L, Jin Y, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements on glycemic traits in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60:2176–84.
Zeng Q, Dong SY, Liu YP, Fu J, Shuai P, Zhao ZM, et al. Effects of fish oil-derived fatty acids on suboptimal cardiovascular health: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27:964–70.
Lin Z, Chen R, Jiang Y, Xia Y, Niu Y, Wang C, et al. Cardiovascular benefits of fish-oil supplementation against fine particulate air pollution in China. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73:2076–85.
Mozaffarian D, Aro A, Willett WC. Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:S5–S21.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Rosner BA, et al. Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet. 1993;341:581–5.
Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Spiegelman D, Stampfer M, Willett WC. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. Br Med J. 1996;313:84–90.
Pietinen P, Ascherio A, Korhonen P, Hartman AM, Willett WC, Albanes D, et al. Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene cancer prevention study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145:876–87.
Christiansen E, Schnider S, Palmvig B, Tauber-Lassen E, Pedersen O. Intake of a diet high in trans monounsaturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acids: Effects on postprandial insulinemia and glycemia in obese patients with NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:881–7.
Vega-López S, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Erkkilä AT, Lichtenstein AH. Palm and partially hydrogenated soybean oils adversely alter lipoprotein profiles compared with soybean and canola oils in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:54–62.
Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Champagne CM, Most MM, Lefevre M, DeLany JP, et al. Effects of diets enriched in saturated (Palmitic), monounsaturated (Oleic), or trans (Elaidic) fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation in healthy adults. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1283–8.
Bendsen NT, Haugaard SB, Larsen TM, Chabanova E, Stender S, Astrup A. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids—a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women. Metabolism. 2011;60:906–13.
Brouwer IA, Wanders AJ, Katan MB. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed? Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:541–7.
Gebauer SK, Destaillats F, Dionisi F, Krauss RM, Baer DJ. Vaccenic acid and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102:1339–46.
Lemaitre RN, King IB, Mozaffarian D, Sotoodehnia N, Rea TD, Kuller LH, et al. Plasma phospholipid trans fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and sudden cardiac death in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Circulation. 2006;114:209–15.
Sun Q, Ma J, Campos H, Hankinson SE, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of trans fatty acids in erythrocytes and risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation. 2007;115:1858–65.
Wang Q, Imamura F, Ma W, Wang M, Lemaitre RN, King IB, et al. Circulating and dietary trans fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1099–107.
Tokede OA, Petrone AB, Hanson NQ, Tsai MY, Weir NA, Glynn RJ, et al. Plasma phospholipid trans fatty acids and risk of heart failure. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:698–705.
Mozaffarian D, Cao H, King IB, Lemaitre RN, Song X, Siscovick DS, et al. Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in U.S. adults: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153:790–9.
Kleber ME, Delgado GE, Lorkowski S, Marz W, von Schacky C. Trans-fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:1072–8.
Yu DX, Sun Q, Ye XW, Pan A, Zong G, Zhou YH, et al. Erythrocyte trans-fatty acids, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older Chinese individuals. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2954–62.
Zong G, Sun Q, Yu D, Zhu J, Sun L, Ye X, et al. Dairy consumption, type 2 diabetes, and changes in cardiometabolic traits: a prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older chinese in beijing and shanghai. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:56–63.
Villegas R, Gao YT, Dai Q, Yang G, Cai H, Li H, et al. Dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Shanghai women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1059–67.
Wu JHY, Lemaitre RN, Manichaikul A, Guan W, Tanaka T, Foy M, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with concentrations of four plasma phospholipid fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway: results from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2013;6:171–83.
Tintle NL, Pottala JV, Lacey S, Ramachandran V, Westra J, Rogers A, et al. A genome-wide association study of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated red blood cell fatty acids in the Framingham Heart Offspring Study. Prostaglandins Leukot Ess Fat Acids. 2015;94:65–72.
Tanaka T, Shen J, Abecasis GR, Kisialiou A, Ordovas JM, Guralnik JM, et al. Genome-wide association study of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids in the InCHIANTI study. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000338.
Lemaitre RN, Tanaka T, Tang W, Manichaikul A, Foy M, Kabagambe EK, et al. Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid N-3 fatty acids: A Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide association studies from the charge consortium. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002193.
Guan W, Steffen BT, Lemaitre RN, Wu JHY, Tanaka T, Manichaikul A, et al. Genome-Wide association study of plasma n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids within the cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology consortium. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014;7:321–31.
Mozaffarian D, Kabagambe EK, Johnson CO, Lemaitre RN, Manichaikul A, Sun Q, et al. Genetic loci associated with circulating phospholipid trans fatty acids: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE consortium. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:398–406.
Hu Y, Tanaka T, Zhu J, Guan W, Wu JHY, Psaty BM, et al. Discovery and fine-mapping of loci associated with MUFAs through trans-ethnic meta-analysis in Chinese and European populations. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:974–81.
Zhu J, Manichaikul A, Hu Y, Chen YDI, Liang S, Steffen LM, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies three novel loci for saturated fatty acids in East Asians. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56:1477–84.
Li SW, Wang J, Yang Y, Liu ZJ, Cheng L, Liu HY, et al. Polymorphisms in FADS1 and FADS2 alter plasma fatty acids and desaturase levels in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. J Transl Med. 2016;14:79.
Li P, Zhao J, Kothapalli KSD, Li X, Li H, Han Y, et al. A regulatory insertion-deletion polymorphism in the FADS gene cluster influences PUFA and lipid profiles among Chinese adults: A population-based study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;107:867–75.
Guo H, Zhang L, Zhu C, Yang F, Wang S, Zhu S, et al. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the FADS1 gene is associated with plasma fatty acid and lipid profiles and might explain gender difference in body fat distribution. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:67.
Dorajoo R, Sun Y, Han Y, Ke T, Burger A, Chang X, et al. A genome-wide association study of n-3 and n-6 plasma fatty acids in a Singaporean Chinese population. Genes Nutr. 2015;10:1–11.
Zhu J, Sun Q, Zong G, Si Y, Liu C, Qi Q, et al. Interaction between a common variant in FADS1 and erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipid profile in Chinese Hans. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:1477–83.
Zheng JS, Huang T, Li K, Chen Y, Xie H, Xu D, et al. Modulation of the association between the PEPD variant and the risk of Type 2 Diabetes by n-3 fatty acids in Chinese hans. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2015;8:36–43.
Liu F, Li Z, Lv X, Ma J. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes modify the effect of genetic variation in fatty acid desaturase 1 on coronary artery disease. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0121255.